Hybrid Rig

The Electric Drives Laboratory (EDLab) at the University of Padova is equipped with the Hybrid test bench whose core is a single cylinder Diesel Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). The ICE throttle is controlled by a DC motor.
On the same common shaft can be connected different electric machines (EM), according to the power train configuration to be experimented. Among the EM one of them is operated as a brake that emulates the vehicle load in different running conditions.
In order to reduce the noise the whole system is placed inside a soundproof box, inside which all the components are supported by an anti-vibration base. An air exhauster pulls out the smoke and discharges gases outside the laboratory.
The test bench ir really very versatile as required by a Laboratory research tool. However a couple of electrical motors are almost always connected to the shaft of the ICE, while a third motor (or more) can be promptly connected according to the experiment to be carried out. Hereafter the three motor drives usually installed are described. They reflect the motor typology attracting more interest in the field of the automotive electrical propulsion.

The adopted brake electric machine is a Surface Permanent Magnet (SPM) synchronous electric machine with a through shaft. It is used as brake to mimic the engine shaft torque resistance due to vehicle dynamics.

The Integrated Starter/Alternator (ISA) machine used is a 18-pole and 27-slot machine able to deliver $10~Nm$ of nominal torque and more than twice that as peak torque. A distinctive feature of the machine is its rotor structure. A copper strip is punched obtaining 18 hollows of identical dimensions of the pole PM and it is laid around the internal circumference of the rotor to ring each pole. The PM tiles get out from each hollow of the strip remaining surrounded by copper.
Such an arrangement of the rotor corresponds to set up a rotor cage in the d-axis only, while the q-axis remains unchanged. As already proved by similar electromagnetic structure in an inner SPM motors, this configuration causes a high frequency anisotropy that can be detected by conventional hf signal injection sensorless technique for rotor position measurement. Such a simple rotor modification is thus effective to make the machine suited for sensorless drives operating at low and zero speed as proved later in the paper.

As propulsion electric machine a synchronous Reluctance (REL) machine has been instaled. The adoption of a REL machine is returning of high interest in the latest years, due to the following key factors:
(i) the increasing cost of rare earth Permanent Magnet (PM), (ii) the increasing request of high efficiency machines,
(iii) its high overload capability, (iv) its wide speed range operations, and (v) its fault-tolerance capability (being enforced by the fact of the absence of the uncontrolled generator operation effect. Therefore, the REL machine and the Ferrite PM assisted REL (PMAREL) machine are becoming competitors of both SPM machines and induction machines in many applications, in particular in the automotive field.

By the test bench researches about hybrid power trains can be experimented!

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